METHODOLOGY

This page explains the methodology by which the data in the Egypt Death Penalty Index was collected and verified.

Terminology

Users will encounter some terms in the Egypt Death Penalty Index with which they may be unfamiliar. These include:

Preliminary vs. confirmed death sentences

The Index tracks individuals who met one of two outcomes at trial before a civilian or military court in Egypt: either a “preliminary death sentence” (sometimes also called a “recommended death sentence” or a “death sentence referral”) or a “confirmed death sentence.” The distinction between these is central to understanding the way in which death sentences progress through the judicial system in Egypt.

Under Article 381 of Egypt’s Code of Criminal Procedure, there are two requirements on the three-judge criminal court panel before it may confirm a death sentence and formally issue its verdict. The first is that they have reached a preliminary, unanimous decision on the death sentence. The second requirement is that the panel of judges must refer this preliminary death sentence to the Grand Mufti – Egypt’s highest religious authority, which is currently held by jurist Sheikh Dr Shawki Allam. The Grand Mufti issues an opinion on the preliminary death sentence, which the panel of judges then takes into consideration before deciding whether to confirm the death sentence. Judges are not required to change their preliminary death sentence on the Grand Mufti’s advice, but they do consult his opinion. Courts do not make the Grand Mufti’s opinions public. Once the panel of judges confirm a death sentence, it can then be subject to appeal.

The Index tracks both preliminary death sentences referred to the Grand Mufti as well as the smaller number of death sentences that are confirmed by courts following the Mufti’s consideration. While some preliminary death sentences are not confirmed, preliminary sentences are an important aspect of the death penalty landscape in Egypt.

Criminal and political trials

The Index separates death penalty trials into two categories: political trials and criminal trials. This is a common distinction among contemporary observers of the death penalty in Egypt, but is not a distinction in law.

Capital trials in the Index are listed as ‘political’ where the alleged facts of the case and the perceived motivation for the commission of the offence are in some way connected to the political and societal changes that have arisen in Egypt since the January 2011 revolution. Charges often stem from broadly defined provisions for terrorism and state security offences in the Penal Code, which have enabled the broad criminalisation of the exercise of fundamental rights and freedoms, in contravention of international standards. Offences which resulted in death sentences under the political category were:

  • Assassination
  • Terrorist acts
  • Terrorist acts against Egypt’s Coptic Christian minority
  • Membership in a terrorist entity
  • Espionage
  • Storming/destroying government installations or buildings
  • Attacking or dispersing peaceful sit-ins or demonstrations by force
  • Clashes between groups of civilians

By contrast, death penalty trials were listed in the Index as ‘criminal’ where the facts of the case and the perceived motivation for the commission of the offence were not deemed to be connected to political events in Egypt. Offences which resulted in death sentences under the criminal category included premeditated murder, rape and drugs trafficking.

Users will note that the Index includes more information about political trials than criminal trials. There are several reasons for this. Firstly, there is simply more information available about political trials because these trials receive considerably greater media coverage, both in Egypt and abroad, and because the larger average number of defendants in political trials affords human rights defenders more opportunities to access original court documents from those cases.

Additionally, there is some available information about criminal trials that has not yet been included in the Index. For example, while each death sentence resulting from a political trial is categorised in the Index according to one of the offences enumerated in the bullet pointed list above, the 1,077 death sentences resulting from criminal trials are all listed under the same generic offence category: “criminal incident.” Through analysis of media reports, it is possible to document the specific offences which led to many of these death sentences in criminal trials as above, murder, rape and drugs trafficking charges often led to death sentences. This is something Reprieve and Daftar Ahwal are currently working on, but because considerably more corroborating information was available on political trials in the form of court documents, priority was given to analysis of those trials. Upon the completion of a full listing of offences leading to death sentences in criminal trials, this information will be added to the Index, wherever it is legally possible for us to do so.

Presidential periods

Users will also see references to different presidential periods in Egyptian history.
These include:

  • The Mubarak period (14 October 1981 – 24 January 2011)
  • The pre-Sisi period (25 January 2011 – 2 July 2013)
  • The Abdel Fattah el-Sisi period (3 July 2013 – present)

The pre-Sisi period comprises the consecutive rule of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) and then the rule of President Mohammed Morsi, the respective rulers of Egypt between the removal of President Hosni Mubarak (25 January 2011) and Morsi’s removal from power (2 July 2013). The Sisi period includes both the tenure of interim President Adly Mansour (4 July 2013 – 7 June 2014) and current President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (8 June 2014 – present). While Mansour was appointed interim president by then-Field Marshal el-Sisi following the ouster of President Morsi on 3 July 2013, and stepped down when el-Sisi officially took office as president on 8 June 2014, it is widely accepted that throughout Mansour’s tenure as interim president, el-Sisi was Egypt’s de facto leader.

Data Inclusion Criteria

In assembling the Index, a set of criteria for including individuals in the database was compiled. These criteria are preliminary death sentence referrals, time period and geographical location.

Preliminary death sentence referrals

The Index only tracks individuals whose sentences were at least referred to the Grand Mufti following a preliminary death sentence. Individuals progressed to various outcomes following their referrals, including confirmed death sentences, prison terms and acquittals, but all individuals included in the Index were at the least referred for a preliminary death sentence by an Egyptian court.

Time period

All individuals included in the Index must have received a preliminary or confirmed death sentence between 25 January 2011 and 23 September 2018 (the day Reprieve and Daftar Ahwal stopped gathering data for this project). The date listed for each death sentence is the date of the verdict in that individual’s first trial. In some cases, some details about a death sentence could be confirmed, but the date of the verdict could not. In such cases in the Index, the date is marked unknown.

Wherever possible, statistical analysis of the data is separated into two periods: the pre- Sisi period (25 January 2011 to 2 July 2013) and the Sisi period (3 July 2013 to 23 September 2018).

Geographical location

All preliminary and confirmed death sentences must have been issued by Egyptian courts, regardless of the location of the alleged offence. These statistics are broken down by the individual Egyptian governorate in which each sentence was recommended or confirmed.

Data Verification and Expansion

After determining the inclusion criteria, a list of every known individual who received at least a preliminary death sentence during the specified period was compiled. Individuals were identified through three different types of sources: official documentation, legal sources, and human rights sources.

Wherever possible, entries in the Index were verified by a process of triangulation, whereby data was validated using cross-verification from as many of these three source categories as were available. This proved possible in many political trials, as the court judgments are more readily available and media coverage is extensive, but more difficult in criminal trials.

Approximately 60% of the entries in the Index (1,949 of a total 3,257) were identified and verified through official documentation, which includes written judgments, submissions made to the court by prosecutors and written police reports, in addition to either legal sources and/or human rights sources.

Where official documentation was unavailable, the remaining 40% of entries (1,308 of a total 3,257) were drawn from legal sources as the main source of information. These included media reports that quote directly from court archives, as well as court reporters, lawyers and law firms contacted by Reprieve and its partners.

The Index also includes information from human rights sources in the form of information published by Egyptian and international NGOs, activists, human rights defenders and campaigns, though these were used mostly as a complementary source of information to expand on information gleaned from official documentation and legal sources.

Building Metadata Structures

Once the information was collected and verified, to the extent possible, for 3,257 individuals the final step was to build a metadata structure to allow for the extraction of trends from the overall dataset. Analysis of metadata—a term which refers to data that provides information about other data—allows the user to build a much more nuanced picture of Egypt’s death penalty phenomenon.

The metadata structure was built into a confidential and protected Excel spreadsheet in which each row corresponded to an individual who received a preliminary or confirmed death sentence (3,257 rows). Columns were created to become a series of filterable metadata field (50 in total).

This structure allows for the use of sequential metadata fields to glean an ever more nuanced picture of the death penalty in Egypt. For example, a user of the Index can see exactly how many preliminary death sentences were definitively recommended by Egyptian courts between 25 January 2011 and 23 September 2018 (2,595). The user can then further narrow that to reveal how many of those sentences were recommended to defendants in absentia (742). By filtering through additional metadata categories, one can then reveal that of those 742 individuals, 273 were referred for a death sentence in 2014, of whom five were convicted in a military court. These filters can be combined in thousands of different ways to reveal the scope of Egypt’s application of the death penalty.

Challenges

There were a number of difficulties in gathering and verifying the data in the Index. The three most significant challenges were geographical issues, security concerns and missing information.

Geography
Egypt is a large country, and many death sentences originated in remote districts, far from the capital. This creates a challenge for Cairo-based human rights professionals, as it is not feasible to travel to every governorate where a death sentence was recommended or confirmed. Geography also poses an obstacle to gathering accurate information about trial proceedings; it is difficult for Cairo-based lawyers and human rights defenders to travel repeatedly to remote parts of the country to attend trials, especially given that it is not uncommon for trials in Egypt to be adjourned dozens of times.

Security risks
Ongoing security risks to human rights defenders also posed a challenge, as rights activists have been targeted, arbitrarily detained and imprisoned by the ruling regime. This issue was compounded by geographical challenges, as security concerns can make it unsafe for human rights defenders to travel long distances across the country doing human rights work.

Missing information
Missing or inaccurate information was another challenge. Media reporting on death penalty trials was sometimes inaccurate, misused legal terminology, provided misleading or contradictory information, or did not consistently cover a case from beginning to end. This was particularly problematic in criminal cases, where data is often scarce or unavailable. Official court documentation from Egyptian trials is also often inconsistent, and some court judgments obtained by Reprieve and its partners were missing key information.

Mitigating challenges
All of these issues were taken into consideration in the course of collecting and verifying information for the Index. To mitigate geographical issues, Reprieve sought out original court documents from trials around the country, often shared electronically by partner organisations or lawyers already in possession of these documents. In some cases, Reprieve investigators traveled to courthouses to obtain original court documents, taking all possible security precautions.

Issues related to missing information were addressed wherever possible by cross- verifying data with multiple sources. However, because the functioning of Egypt’s judiciary is extremely opaque, especially given the increasing use of enormous mass trials, there are some death sentences about which little to no information was available; the Index reflects where this is the case: as users navigate the Index they will see that some pieces of information (date of sentence, offence, etc.) are marked “unknown.” Users will also notice that some statistical fields are marked ‘0’. This does not mean that there are definitively zero individuals in that particular statistical category, but rather it was not possible to confirm the existence of any such individuals using the available data.

Egypt Death Penalty Index Privacy Statement

The Egypt Death Penalty Index and data privacy

The Egypt Death Penalty Index (http://www.egyptdeathpenaltyindex.com/) is committed to protecting and respecting your privacy. This privacy statement applies in relation to the Egypt Death Penalty Index (hereinafter referred to as ‘Egypt Death Penalty Index’ or ‘our initiative’). The Egypt Death Penalty Index is a joint initiative of Daftar Ahwal, an independent research center for archiving, documentation, statistics and studies, registered according to the Egyptian law; and  Reprieve, a company limited by guarantee incorporated in England and Wales, registered company number 5777831, and a registered charity in England and Wales, charity number 1114900. Reprieve’s registered office address is 10 Queen Street Place, London, EC4R 1BE (hereinafter, Reprieve and Daftar Ahwal are referred to as “we, our or us”).

The Egypt Death Penalty Index is hosted separately from Reprieve’s main website]. This privacy statement sets out the basis on which the Egypt Death Penalty Index, Reprieve and Daftar Ahwal will process any personal information that we may collect about you as a visitor to the Egypt Death Penalty Index website.

The information that we collect about you

We may collect and process the following information about you:

  • Information that you give us: This is information about you that you give to us by corresponding with us by telephone, post, email or otherwise. It may include, for example, your name, address, email address and telephone number, your date of birth, gender, information about your relationship with the Egypt Death Penalty Index (including feedback you have provided to the Egypt Death Penalty Index), information about your relationship with Reprieve and Daftar Ahwal, and information about your professional role, background and interests.
  • Information that the Egypt Death Penalty Index website and Reprieve’s other systems collect about you:
  • If you visit the Egypt Death Penalty Index website it will automatically collect some information about you and your visit, including the Internet protocol (IP) address used to connect your device to the Internet and some other information such as your browser type and version and the pages on our site that you visit.
  • If you exchange emails, telephone conversations or other electronic communications with Reprieve employees and other staff members responsible for administering the Egypt Death Penalty Index website, Reprieve’s information technology systems will record details of those conversations, sometimes including their content.
  • Other information: We may also collect some information from other sources. For example:
  • If we have a business relationship with the organisation that you represent, your colleagues or other contacts may give us information about you such as your contact details or details of your role in the relationship.
  • We sometimes collect information from third party data providers or publicly available sources for anti-money-laundering, background checking and similar purposes, and to protect our initiative and comply with any legal and regulatory obligations.

The uses that we make of your information

We may use your information for the following purposes:

 

  • to operate, manage, develop and promote our initiative, including managing and administering support actions, and raising awareness of the cases of those facing the death penalty in Egypt;

 

  • to operate, administer and improve our initiative’s website and other aspects of the way in which we conduct our initiative;
  • to protect our initiative or Reprieve from fraud, money-laundering, breach of confidence, theft of proprietary materials and other financial or business crimes;
  • to comply with our legal and regulatory obligations and bring and defend legal claims;
  • if you have given your consent, to provide you (by electronic means only) with information about the Egypt Death Penalty Index’s news, activities, and campaigns;
  • if you have given your consent, to allow selected third parties, including Reprieve, to contact you about their services or issues which may be of interest to you;
  • to analyse and better understand the composition and interests of supporters of our initiative and of Reprieve.

 

 

We may from time to time review information about you held in our systems – including the contents of and other information related to your email and other communications with us – for compliance and business-protection purposes as described above. This may include reviews for the purposes of disclosure of information relevant to litigation and/or reviews of records relevant to internal or external regulatory or criminal investigations. To the extent permitted by applicable law these reviews will be conducted in a reasonable and proportionate way and approved at an appropriate level of Reprieve’s management. They may ultimately involve disclosure of your information to governmental agencies and litigation counterparties as described below. Your emails and other communications may also occasionally be accessed by persons other than the member of staff with whom they are exchanged for ordinary management purposes (for example, where necessary when a staff member is out of the office, is no longer involved in the Egypt Death Penalty Index initiative, or has left Reprieve or Daftar Ahwal).

We will only process your personal information as necessary so that we can pursue the purposes described above, and then only where we have concluded that our processing does not prejudice you or your privacy in a way that would override our legitimate interest in pursuing those purposes. In exceptional circumstances we may also be required by law to disclose or otherwise process your personal information. We will tell you, when we ask you to provide information about yourself, if provision of the requested information is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation or, on the other hand, if it is purely voluntary and there will be no implications if you decline to provide the information. Otherwise you should assume that we need the information for our organisation or compliance purposes (as described above). If you are uncertain as to the Egypt Death Penalty Index’s need for information that we request from you, please contact the Egypt Death Penalty Index representative asking for the information, or Contact us (see below), with your query.

If we are using your sensitive personal data (including personal data relating to your racial or ethnic origin, political, religious and philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, sexual orientation or health, we will only do so with your explicit consent or, if otherwise, only to the extent permitted by applicable law.

Disclosure and international transfer of your information

We may disclose personal information about you, where reasonably necessary for the various purposes set out above:

  • to the other members of the Reprieve group or to Daftar Ahwal members;
  • to your colleagues within the organisation that you represent;
  • to Daftar Ahwal, Reprieve, and to service providers who host the Egypt Death Penalty Index website or other information technology systems or otherwise hold or process your information on our behalf, under strict conditions of confidentiality and security;
  • to a person who takes over Reprieve, Daftar Ahwal or our initiative, and Reprieve’s assets, or relevant parts of them; or
  • in exceptional circumstances:
  • to competent regulatory, prosecuting and other governmental agencies, or litigation counterparties, in any country or territory; or
  • where we are required by law to disclose.

These disclosures may involve transferring your personal information overseas. If you are dealing with us within the European Economic Area (or the UK, after it has left the European Economic Area), you should be aware that this may include transfers to countries outside the European Economic Area / UK, which do not have similarly strict data privacy laws. In those cases, where we transfer personal data to other members of the Reprieve group, to Daftar Ahwal or our service providers, we will ensure that our arrangements with them are governed by data transfer agreements, designed to ensure that your personal information is protected, on terms approved for this purpose by the European Commission. Please Contact us (see below) if you would like to know whether any such agreements are in place or, if so, to see a copy.

Retention and deletion of your information

We will delete the information that we hold about you when we no longer need it. For specific information about our record retention policies, please contact us (see below).

Your rights

You may have a right of access to the personal information that we hold about you, and to some related information, under data protection law. You can also require any inaccurate personal information to be corrected or deleted. You can object to our use of your personal information for direct marketing purposes at any time and you may have the right to object to our processing of some or all of your personal information (and require them to be deleted) in some other circumstances.
If you wish to exercise any of these rights, please contact us as set out below. You can also lodge a complaint about our processing of your personal information with the Information Commissioners Office.

Contact us

We welcome questions, comments and requests regarding this privacy statement and our processing of personal information. Please send them to info@reprieve.org.uk or call 0207 553 8140.

Changes to this policy

Any changes we make to this privacy statement in the future will be posted to the Egypt Death Penalty Index website at http://www.egyptdeathpenaltyindex.com/ and also available if you contact us. Please check back frequently to see any change.

Egypt Death Penalty Index: WEBSITE terms of use

These terms tell you the rules for using our Egypt Death Penalty Index website (http://www.egyptdeathpenaltyindex.com/) / (“our site”).

 

1-WHO WE ARE AND HOW TO CONTACT US  

    1. http://www.egyptdeathpenaltyindex.com/ is a website (‘site’) jointly operated by Reprieve and Daftar Ahwal (“We”).
    2. Reprieve is a registered company in England & Wales limited by guarantee (Company No. 05777831).
    3. Reprieve is a Registered Charity No. 114900.
    4. Reprieve’s Registered office is 10 Queen Street Place, London, EC4R 1BE.
    5. To contact Reprieve, please email info@reprieve.org.uk or telephone +44 (0) 20 7553 8140.
    6. Daftar Ahwal is an independent research center for archiving, documentation, statistics and studies, registered according to the Egyptian law.

2-BY USING OUR SITE YOU ACCEPT THESE TERMS  

    1. By using our site, you confirm that you accept these terms of use and that you agree to comply with them.
    2. If you do not agree to these terms, you must not use our site.
    3. We amend these terms from time to time. Every time you wish to use our site, please check these terms to ensure you understand the terms that apply at that time.
    4. We recommend that you print a copy of these terms for future reference.

 

3-OTHER TERMS THAT MAY APPLY TO YOU  

    1. These terms of use refer to the following additional terms, which also apply to your use of our site:
      1. The Egypt Death Penalty Index Privacy Policy, which sets out the terms on which we process any personal data we collect from you through our site, or that you provide to us through our site. By using our site, you consent to such processing and you warrant that all data provided by you is accurate.
      2. Our Acceptable Use Policy, which sets out the permitted uses and prohibited uses of our site. When using our site, you must comply with this Acceptable Use Policy.

4-SUSPENsion OR WITHDRAWal of OUR SITE  

    1. Our site is made available free of charge.
    2. We do not guarantee that our site, or any content on it, will always be available or be uninterrupted. We may suspend or withdraw or restrict the availability of all or any part of our site for business and operational reasons.
    3. You are also responsible for ensuring that all persons who access our site through your internet connection are aware of these terms of use and other applicable terms and conditions, and that they comply with them.
    4. We do not represent that content available on or through our site is appropriate for use or available in other locations outside the United Kingdom.

 

5-using MATERIAL ON OUR SITE  

    1. The content on the Egypt Death Penalty Index website is the copyright of Reprieve, Daftar Ahwal or third parties.
    2. The trademarks and logos displayed on the Egypt Death Penalty Index website are the intellectual property of Reprieve, Daftar Ahwal and/or of other third parties.
    3. You may print off one copy, and may download extracts, of any page(s) from our site for your personal use and you may draw the attention of others within your network or organisation to content posted on our site.
    4. You must not modify the paper or digital copies of any materials you have printed off or downloaded in any way, and you must not use any illustrations, photographs, video or audio sequences or any graphics separately from any accompanying text.
    5. Our status (and that of any identified contributors) as the authors of content on our site must always be acknowledged.
    6. You must not use any part of the content on our site for commercial purposes without obtaining a licence to do so from us or our licensors.
    7. If you print off, copy or download any part of our site in breach of these terms of use, your right to use our site will cease immediately and you must, at our option, return or destroy any copies of the materials you have made.

6-RELIANCE ON INFORMATION

      1. The content on our site is provided for general information only. It is not intended to amount to advice on which you should rely. You must obtain professional or specialist advice before taking, or refraining from, any action on the basis of the content on our site.
      2. We may update and change our site from time to time to reflect changes to our activities, our stakeholders’ needs, legal and regulatory changes, and Reprieve’s organisational priorities. Although we make reasonable efforts to update the information on our site, we make no representations, warranties or guarantees, whether express or implied, that the content on our site is accurate, complete or up to date.

7-third party websites

    1. Where our site contains links to other sites and resources provided by third parties, these links are provided for your information only. Such links should not be interpreted as approval by us of those linked websites or information you may obtain from them.
    2. We have no control over the contents of those sites or resources.

 

8-OUR RESPONSIBILITY

    1. We do not exclude or limit in any way our liability to you where it would be unlawful to do so. This includes liability for death or personal injury caused by our negligence or the negligence of our employees, agents or subcontractors and for fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation.
    2. We will not be liable to you for any loss or damage, whether in contract, tort (including negligence), breach of statutory duty, or otherwise, even if foreseeable, arising under or in connection with the use of, or inability to use our site or use of or reliance on any content displayed on our site.

 

9-viruses

    1. We do not guarantee that our site will be secure or free from bugs or viruses.
    2. You are responsible for configuring your information technology, computer programmes and platform to access our site. You should use your own virus protection software.
    3. You must not misuse our site by knowingly introducing viruses, trojans, worms, logic bombs or other material that is malicious or technologically harmful. You must not attempt to gain unauthorised access to our site, the server on which our site is stored or any server, computer or database connected to our site. You must not attack our site via a denial-of-service attack or a distributed denial-of service attack. By breaching this provision, you would commit a criminal offence under the Computer Misuse Act 1990. We will report any such breach to the relevant law enforcement authorities and we will co-operate with those authorities by disclosing your identity to them. In the event of such a breach, your right to use our site will cease immediately.

10-LINKING TO OUR SITE  

    1. You may link to the Egypt Death Penalty Index home page, provided you do so in a way that is fair, legal, in keeping with and does not damage our reputation or take advantage of it.
    2. You must not establish a link in such a way as to suggest any form of association, approval or endorsement on our part where none exists.
    3. You must not establish a link to our site in any website that is not owned by you.
    4. Our site must not be framed on any other site, nor may you create a link to any part of our site other than the home page.
    5. We reserve the right to withdraw linking permission without notice.
    6. The website in which you are linking must comply in all respects with the content standards set out in our Acceptable Use Policy.
    7. If you wish to link to or make any use of content on our site other than that set out above, please contact Georgia O’Brien: georgia.obrien@reprieve.org.uk.

11-WHICH COUNTRY’S LAWS APPLY TO ANY DISPUTES?  

    1. These terms of use, their subject matter and their formation (and any non-contractual disputes or claims), are governed by English law. You and we both agree that the courts of England and Wales will have exclusive jurisdiction.

12-Trademarks

    1. The Egypt Death Penalty Index is a working name of Reprieve. Reprieve is a UK registered trade mark of Reprieve. You are not permitted to use it without our approval, unless they are part of material you are using as permitted under paragraph 5 (Using material on our site).

 

Terms of use last updated: 14 March 2019

Acceptable Use Policy

1-Terms

    1. This acceptable use policy sets out the terms between you and us under which you may access our website www.egyptdeathpenaltyindex.com (“our site”). This acceptable use policy applies to all users of, and visitors to, our site.
    2. By using our site, you confirm that you accept, and agree to abide by, all the policies in this acceptable use policy, which supplement our terms of website use.
    3. If you do not agree to these terms, you must not use our site.
    4. We recommend that you print a copy of these terms for future reference.

www.egyptdeathpenaltyindex.com is a joint initiative of Daftar Ahwal, an independent research center for archiving, documentation, statistics and studies, registered according to Egyptian law;  and  Reprieve, a company limited by guarantee incorporated in England and Wales, registered company number 5777831, and a registered charity in England and Wales, charity number 1114900. Reprieve’s registered office address is 10 Queen Street Place, London, EC4R 1BE (“we, our or us”).

 

2-Other terms that may apply to you

    1. These terms of use refer to the following additional terms, which also apply to your use of our site:
      1. Our Privacy Policy, which sets out the terms on which we process any personal data we collect from you, or that you provide to us. By using our site, you consent to such processing and you warrant that all data provided by you is accurate.
      2. Our Terms of Use Policy, which sets out the terms on which you may use our site.

 

3-Changes to the terms of this policy

    1. We amend these terms from time to time. Every time you wish to use our site, please check these terms to ensure you understand the terms that apply at that time.

 

4-Prohibited uses

    1. You may use our site only for lawful purposes.  You may not use our site:
      1. In any way that breaches any applicable local, national or international law or regulation.
      2. In any way that is unlawful or fraudulent, or has any unlawful or fraudulent purpose or effect.
      3. For the purpose of harming or attempting to harm minors in any way.
      4. To send, knowingly receive, upload, download, use or re-use any material which does not comply with our content standards set out below.
      5. To transmit, or procure the sending of, any unsolicited or unauthorised advertising or promotional material or any other form of similar solicitation (spam).
      6. To knowingly transmit any data, send or upload any material that contains viruses, Trojan horses, worms, time-bombs, keystroke loggers, spyware, adware or any other harmful programs or similar computer code designed to adversely affect the operation of any computer software or hardware.
    2. You also agree:
      1. Not to reproduce, duplicate, copy or re-sell any part of our site in contravention of the provisions of our terms of website use.
      2. Not to access without authority, interfere with, damage or disrupt:
        1. any part of our site;
        2. any equipment or network on which our site is stored;
        3. any software used in the provision of our site; or
        4. any equipment or network or software owned or used by any third party.

 

5-Interactive services

    1. We may from time to time provide choose to provide interactive services on our site, including, without limitation:
      1. chat rooms; or
      2. bulletin boards,

(“interactive services”).

    1. Where we do provide any interactive service, we will provide clear information to you about the kind of service offered, if it is moderated and what form of moderation is used (including whether it is human or technical).
    2. We will do our best to assess any possible risks for users (and in particular, for children) from third parties when they use any interactive service provided on our site, and we will decide in each case whether it is appropriate to use moderation of the relevant service (including what kind of moderation to use) in the light of those risks. However, we are under no obligation to oversee, monitor or moderate any interactive service we provide on our site, and we expressly exclude our liability for any loss or damage arising from the use of any interactive service by a user in contravention of our content standards, whether the service is moderated or not.
    3. The use of any of our interactive services by a minor is subject to the consent of their parent or guardian. We advise parents who permit their children to use an interactive service that it is important that they communicate with their children about their safety online, as moderation is not foolproof. Minors who are using any interactive service should be made aware of the potential risks to them.
    4. Where we do moderate an interactive service, we will normally provide you with a means of contacting the moderator, should a concern or difficulty arise.

 

6-Content standards

    1. These content standards apply to any and all material which you contribute to our site (“contributions”), and to any interactive services associated with it.
    2. You must comply with the spirit of the following standards as well as to the letter. The standards apply to each part of any contribution as well as to its whole.
    3. Reprieve UK and Daftar Ahwal reserve the right to remove any content where it considers a contribution breaches the content standards, acting in their discretion.
    4. Contributions must:
      1. be accurate (where they state facts);
      2. be genuinely held (where they state opinions); and
      3. comply with applicable law in the UK and in any country from which they are posted.
    5. Contributions must not:
      1. contain any material which is defamatory of any person;
      2. contain any material which is obscene, offensive, hateful or inflammatory;
      3. promote sexually explicit material;
      4. promote violence;
      5. promote discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation or age;
      6. infringe any copyright, database right or trade mark of any other person;
      7. be likely to deceive any person;
      8. be made in breach of any legal duty owed to a third party, such as a contractual duty or a duty of confidence;
      9. promote any illegal activity;
      10. be in contempt of court;
      11. be threatening, abuse or invade another’s privacy, or cause annoyance, inconvenience or needless anxiety;
      12. be likely to harass, upset, embarrass, alarm or annoy any other person;
      13. be used to impersonate any person, or to misrepresent your identity or affiliation with any person;
      14. give the impression that they emanate from us, if this is not the case;
      15. advocate, promote or assist any unlawful act such as (by way of example only) copyright infringement or computer misuse.
      16. contain a statement which you know or believe, or have reasonable grounds for believing, that members of the public to whom the statement is, or is to be, published are likely to understand as a direct or indirect encouragement or other inducement to the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism; or
      17. contain any advertising or promote any services or web links to other sites.

7-Suspension and termination

    1. We will determine, in our discretion, whether there has been a breach of this acceptable use policy through your use of our site.  When a breach of this policy has occurred, we may take such action as we deem appropriate.
    2. Failure to comply with this acceptable use policy constitutes a material breach of the terms of use on which you are permitted to use our site, and may result in our taking all or any of the following actions:
      1. immediate, temporary or permanent withdrawal of your right to use our site;
      2. immediate, temporary or permanent removal of any posting or material uploaded by you to our site;
      3. issue of a warning to you;
      4. legal proceedings against you for reimbursement of all costs on an indemnity basis (including, but not limited to, reasonable administrative and legal costs) resulting from the breach;
      5. further legal action against you; and/or
      6. disclosure of such information to law enforcement authorities as we reasonably feel is necessary or as required by law.
    3. We exclude liability for actions taken in response to breaches of this acceptable use policy.  The actions described in this policy are not limited, and we may take any other action we reasonably deem appropriate.

 

8-Limitation of liability

    1. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Reprieve UK and Daftar Ahwal will not be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages, or any loss of profits or revenues, whether incurred directly or indirectly, or any loss of data, use good-will, or other intangible losses, resulting from:
      1. your access to or use of or inability to access or use the site;
      2. any conduct or content of any third party on the site, including without limitation, any defamatory, offensive or illegal conduct of other users or third parties;
      3. any content obtained from the site; or
      4. unauthorised access, use or alteration of your transmissions or content.

 

9-Which country’s laws apply to any disputes?

    1. These terms of use, their subject matter and their formation (and any non-contractual disputes or claims), are governed by English law. You and we both agree that the courts of England and Wales will have exclusive jurisdiction.

10-Changes to the acceptable use policy

    1. We may revise this acceptable use policy at any time by amending this page. You are expected to check this page from time to time to take notice of any changes we make, as they are legally binding on you. Some of the provisions contained in this acceptable use policy may also be superseded by provisions or notices published elsewhere on our site.

 

Last updated: 14 March 2019